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Hellenistic Greek: Course Lexicon
by Micheal W. Palmer
© 2009, 2015

Greek-Language.com

This brief glossary is little more than a cummulative vocabulary list for my online grammar. It is designed to accompany my Introduction to Hellenistic Greek course and is not intended as a complete dictionary. It does not offer definitions of the Greek words, for example. Instead, it offers example translations, comments on English words derived from a given Greek word, and occasional comments on usage. For serious study of specific Greek texts, you should invest in a more complete lexicon.

The numbers on the left indicate the number of times the accompanying word appears in the Greek New Testament. The numbers on the right indicate the lesson(s) in whose vocabulary list the word appears in this course. The designation "na" in this column indicates that the word has not yet appeared in a vocabulary list in the grammar.

SO FAR THIS PAGE INCLUDES THE VOCABULARY FOR LESSONS 1—23 and 27.

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

How to Use the Lexicon

Entries in this lexicon follow several traditional features of Ancient Greek lexica.

Adjectives are listed with their nominative masculine singular form followed by the nominative feminine singular and nominative neuter singular endings.

Nominative
Masculine
Singular
Form

Nominative
Feminine
Singular
Ending

Nominative
Neuter
Singular Ending

ἀγαθός,

-ή,

-όν


Nouns are listed with their nominative singular form, followed by the genitive singular ending (or the full genitive singular form in some instances), then the nominative singular article of the appropriate gender.

Nominative
Singular
Form

Genitive
Singular
Ending

Article
of the
Appropriate
Gender

ἀγάπη,

-ης,


Verbs are listed, as is traditional in Ancient Greek lexica, with six different indicative first person singular forms: the present active, future active, aorist active, perfect active, perfect middle/passive, and the aorist passive.

Present
Active
Indicative,
First
Singular

Future
Active
Indicative,
First
Singular

Aorist
Active
Indicative,
First
Singular

ἀγαπάω

ἀγαπήσω

ἠγάπησα

Perfect
Active
Indicative,
First
Singular

Perfect
Middle/Passive
Indicative,
First
Singular

Aorist
Passive
Indicative,
First
Singular

ἠγάπηκα

ἠγάπημαι

ἠγαπήθην

Forms listed in light gray text or replaced by a long underscore (______) do not appear in the New Testament.

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ
τ υ φ χ ψ ω

Α, α

102

ἀγαθός, -ή, -όν

good

5, 17

143

ἀγαπάω, ἀγαπήσω, ἠγάπησα, ἠγάπηκα, ἠγάπημαι, ἠγαπήθην

I love (someone or something), long for (someone or something)

8, 9

116

ἀγάπη, -ης, ἡ

love, loving concern; fellowship meal

13

61

ἀγαπητός, -ή, -όν

loved, beloved

5

175

ἄγγελος, -ου, ὁ

messenger, angel

4

233

ἅγιος, -α, -ον

holy

5

69

ἄγω, ἄξω, ἤγαγον, ______, ἤγμαι, ἤχθην

I lead, bring

12


The aorist active froms of ἄγω (ἤγαγον, etc) are exceptional in that the stem not only receives and augment, but is first reduplicated:ἄγ- ⇒ ἄγαγ- ⇒ ἤγαγ-.


343

ἀδελφός, -οῦ, ὁ

brother (Philadelphia = the city of brotherly love)

4

97

αἷμα, αἵματος, τό

blood, death (The prefix “hem-” in words like “hemoglobin” means blood.)

15

101

αἴρω, ἀρῶ, ἦρα, ἦρκα, ἦρμαι, ἤρθην

I lift (something or someone) up, take up (something); I remove (something or someone), take (something or someone) away, destroy (something or someone)

14, 18

101

αἰτέω, αἰτήσω, ᾔτησα, ᾔτηκα, ᾔτημαι, ______

I ask (someone) for (something), demand (something)

14

122

αἰών, αἰῶνος, ὁ

eternity, age, epoch (aeon = an immeasurably long period of time)

15

71

αἰώνιος, -α, -ον

eternal (aeon = an extremely long period)

5

90

ἀκολουθέω, ἀκολουθήσω, ἠκολούθησα, ἠκολούθηκα, ______, ______

I follow, go with, accompany

8, 9

428

άκούω, ἀκούσω ἤκουσα, ἀκήκοα, ______, ἠκούσθην

I hear, listen to, learn, obey, understand

8, 9, 20

109

ἀλήθεια, -ας, ἡ

truth, truthfulness, faithfulness

9

639

ἀλλά

but, instead, on the contrary

7

100

ἀλλήλων

one another, each other

17

155

ἄλλος, -η, -ο

other, another

6

173

ἁμαρτία, -ας, ἡ

sin; sin offering

13

47

ἁμαρτολός, -όν

sinful (ὁ ἁμαρτολός = sinner)

19

Notice that the adjective ἁμαρτολός is listed with only two forms (rather than the usual three). The first form listed is used for both nominative masculine and feminine singular. The ending -όν is used for the nominative neuter singular.


126

ἀμήν

so be it, let it be so, truly

17


In a specifically religious context, ἀμήν can be translated as "amen," but you should keep in mind that at the time of the Greek New Testament, the word did not have a specifically religious meaning. That developed later.


13

ἀνά

up, upon, on, above

14

While ἀνά appears infrequently on its own, it is a component in several compound verbs that appear much more frequently.


82

ἀναβαίνω, ἀναβήσομαι, ἀνέβην, ἀναβέβηκα, ______, ______

I go up, rise up, ascend, advance
(ἀνα + βαίνω)

14

12

ἀναπαύω, ἀναπαύσω, ἀνέπαυσα, ______, ἀναπέπαυμαι, ἀνεπαύθην

1. transitive. I cause to rest, give (someone) rest; I refresh, revive (someone)
2. intransitive. I rest, take my rest

22

216

ἀνήρ, ἀνδρός, ὁ

man, husband (android = a human-like robot)

15

550

ἄνθροπος, -ου, ὁ

man, person (anthropology = the study of humanity)

4

108

ἀνίστημι, ἀναστήσω, ἀνέστην (ἀνέστησα), ἀνέστηκα, ἀνέσταμαι, ἀνεστάθην

I raise up, set up, arise, resist, restore
(ἀνα + ἴστημι)

14, 20

Ἀνίστημι is a compound verb: ἀνά + ἴστημι. It's aorist forms are inconsistent. Sometimes it has first aorist forms (ἀνέστησα) and sometimes second aorist (ἀνέστην). Even within the writing of a single author, both forms may be found.


77

ἀνοίγω, ἀνοίξω, ἤνοιξα (ἠνέῳξα, ἀνέῳξα), ἀνέῳγα, ἀνέῳγμαι, ἀνεῴχθην

I open, unlock, disclose

8, 9

The aorist form of ἀνοίγω is inconsistent. It appears sometines as ἤνοιξα sometimes as ἠνέῳξα, and sometimes even as ἀνέῳξα.


117

ἀπέρχομαι, ἀπελεύσομαι, ἀπῆλθον, ἀπελήλυθα, ______, ______

I go away, depart, leave
Compare ἔρχομαι.

12, 20

646

ἀπό

from, away from; by, since

10

111

ἀποθνῄσκω, ἀποθνοῦμαι, ἀπέθανον, ______, ______, ______

I die
(ἀπο + θνῄσκω)

12

231

ἀποκρίνομαι, _______, ἀπεκρινάμην, ________, ________, ἀπεκρίθην

I answer

20, 21

74

ἀποκτείνω, ἀποκτενῶ, ἀπέκτεινα, ______, ______, ἀπεκτάνθην

I kill, put to death
(ἀπο + κτείνω)

8, 10

90

ἀπόλλυμι, ἀπολέσω, ἀπώλεσα, ἀπόλῶλα, ______, ______

I ruin, destroy; middle voice I die

17, 21

66

ἀπολύω, ἀπολύσω, ἀπέλυσα, ______, ἀπολέλυμαι, ἀπελύθην

I release (someone or something); I dismiss (someone), send (someone) away; I divorce (someone)
(ἀπο + λύω)

14, 21

132

ἀποστέλλω, ἀποστελῶ, ἀπέστειλα, ἀπέσταλκα, ἀπέσταλμαι, ἀπεστάλην

I send, send away
(ἀπο + στέλλω)

14

Ἀποστέλλω is a compound verb: ἀπό + στέλλω. Στέλλω = I go, travel; I avoid.


80

ἀπόστολος, -ου, ὁ

apostle

4

39

ἅπτω, ________, ἡψάμην, ________, ________, ________

I touch, hold, grasp (always middle voice in this sense); I ignite, light (a lamp)

20

33

ἀρνέομαι, ἀρνήσομαι, ἠρνησάμην, ________, ἠρνήμην, ________

I deny (something); I reject (something or someone)

20

97

ἄρτος, -ου, ὁ

bread

4

55

ἀρχή, -ής, ἡ

beginning, authority
Contrast ἐξουσία, -ας, ἡ

13

122

ἀρχιερεύς, ἀρχιερέως, ὁ

high priest (Remember: ἀρχή = authority; ἱερεύς = priest)

16

86

ἄρχω, ἄρξω, ἤρξα, ________, ________, ________

I rule (active voice); I begin, start (middle voice)

8, 9, 20

Notice that ἄρχω has a different meaning in the middle voice from the one it has in the active voice. The aorist middle appears 60 times in the New Testament while the active only appears 26 times.

The middle voice meaning of this verb is intransitive, so it's English translation must be active voice, even though the Greek form is middle.

143

ἀφίημι, ἀφήσω, ἀφῆκα, ἀφεῖκα, ἀφέωμαι, ἀφέθην

I let go, give up, abandon; I forgive, set free

12

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Β, β

0

βαίνω, ______, ἔβην, βέβηκα, ______, ______

I come, go

14

Βαίνω is an infrequently occurring verb that does not appear at all in the New Testament. It is worth your time to learn the forms listed here anyway, though, since several other verbs are compounds with it. See ἀναβαίνω, καταβαίνω, and μεταβαίνω for example.

122

βάλλω, βαλῶ, ἔβαλον, βέβληκα, βέβλημαι, ἐβλήθην

I throw, cast

12, 18, 21

77

βαπτίζω, βαπτίσω, ἐβάπτισα, ______, βεβάπτισμαι, ἐβαπτίσθην

I dip, immerse

8, 9, 18, 21, 23

The English word, "Baptize" is derived from this Greek word. In a specifically religious context it may be appropriate to translate βαπτίζω as "I baptize" in later Hellenistic Greek texts, but you should keep in mind that the English word "baptize" carries an exclusively religious meaning that the Greek word βαπτίζω did not at the time the books of the New Testament were written.


162

βασιλεία, -ας, ἡ

kingdom

11

115

βασιλεύς, βασιλέως, ὁ

king (Compare βασιλεἰα above.)

16

21

βασιλεύω, ἐβασίλευσα

I rule; I am king

17

34

βιβλίον, -ου, τό

book, scroll

4

133

βλέπω, βλέψω, ἔβλεψα, ______, ______, ______,

I see, look at, observe, watch

8, 9, 18

37

βούλομαι, ________, ________, ________, ________, ἐβουλήθην

I want (something)

21



α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Γ, γ

61

Γαλιλαία, -ας, ἡ

Galilee

11

1036

γάρ

for, since, because; certainly, so, then

17

97

γεννάω (Contracts to γεννῶ), γεννήσω, ἐγέννησα, γεγέννηκα, γεγέννημαι, ἐγεννήθην

I give birth, become the father of, produce

8, 9, 18, 23

250

γῆ, -ῆς, ἡ

earth, dirt, land

13

669

γίνομαι, γενήσομαι, ἐγενόμην, γέγονα, ________, ἐγενήθην

I am; I become, come into being; It happens (3rd person only)

20

222

γινώσκω, γνώσομαι, ἔγνων, ἔγνωκα, ἔγνωσμαι, ἐγνώσθην

I know

12

50

γλῶσσα, -ης, ἡ

tongue, language

11

63

γραμματεύς, γραμματέως, ὁ

secretary, scribe, lawyer

16

50

γραφή, -ής, ἡ

writing, written message, written document, scripture

13

191

γράφω, γράψω, ἔγραψα, γέγραφα, γέγραμμαι, ἐγράφην

I write, record, compose

8, 9, 18

215

γυνή, γυναικός, ἡ

woman, wife (misogynist = a person who hates women)

15


The vocative singular form of γυνή is γυναί. The accusative singular is γυναῖκα. Otherwise this word follows the paradigm for σάρξ.





α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Δ, δ

63

δαιμόνιον, -ου, τό

demon, evil spirit, spirit, deity

6

2792

δέ

but, and

7

102

δεῖ

It is necessary, It must

14

Like μέλλω, δεῖ appears only in the present and imperfect tenses. It is usually followed by an infinitive. Unlike μέλλω, δεῖ appears only in the third person.


54

δεξιός, -ά, -όν

right (as opposed to left)
When δεξιός is used as a noun it should be translated as “right hand” or “right side.”

5

666

διά

+ genitive: through
+ accusative
: because of, on account of

17

33

διαθήκη, -ης, ἡ

covenant, pact, agreement

13

16

διαλογίζομαι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I reason, think carefully about (something); I discuss, consider (something)

23

11

διαμερίζω, ______, διεμέρισα, ______, διαμεμέρισμαι, διεμερίσθην

transitive. I divide, separate (something); I distribute (something)

22

59

διδάσκαλος, -ου, ὁ

teacher

6

97

διδάσκω, διδάξω, ἐδίδαξα, ______, ______, ἐδιδάχθην

I teach, instruct

8, 9, 18

415

δίδωμι, δώσω, ἔδωκα, δέδωκα, δέδομαι, ἐδόθην

I give

8, 9, 18, 21

79

δίκαιος, -α, -ον

righteous, just

5

92

δικαιοσύνη, -ης, ἡ

righteousness, justice

11

62

δοκέω, ________, ἔδοξα, ________, _________, ________

I think, believe; I seem

17

166

δόξα, -ης, ἡ

brightness, glory, opinion, reputation

11

61

δοξάζω, δοξάσω, ἐδόξασα, ______, δεδόξασμαι, ἐδοξάσθην

I praise, honor, glorify

8, 9, 18

25

δουλεύω, δουλεύσω, δεδουλεύκα, ______, ἐδούλευσα, ______

I serve (someone) (as a slave)

22

124

δούλος, -ου, ὁ

slave, servant

4

209

δύναμαι, δυνήσομαι, ________, ________, ________, ἠδυνήθην

I can; I am able to (to do something)

20, 22, 23, 27

While the present tense form of δύναμαι appears to end with -αμαι rather than ομαι, the α is actually a part of the stem, and the ending is -μαι (like the perfect middle).


119

δύναμις, δυνάμεως, ἡ

power, powerful deed, great work

16

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ε, ε

144

ἐγείρω, ἐγερῶ, ἤγειρα, ______, ἐγήγερμαι, ἠγέρθην

I raise up, rise

9

2666

ἐγώ, (ἐ)μοῦ

I, me, my

Study the forms of this word well! See the chart above.

27

162

ἔθνος, ἔθνους, τό

nation, people [The plural forms of ἔθνος are often translated “gentiles” (that is, “non-Jews”).]

16

502

εἰ

if

17

When εἰ is used to introduce a question, it is often necessary to leave εἰ untranslated. In printed Greek texts, questions end with a question mark (;). When you see that mark at the end of a clause introduced by εἰ, leave εἰ untranslated.

2462

εἰμί, ἔσομαι

I am
This verb appears only in the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

3

92

εἰρήνη, -ης, ἡ

peace

13

345

εἷς / μία / ἕν

one

na

1768

εἰς

to, into, toward, in

7

Nouns, adjectives, and articles that immediately follow the preposition εἰς are assigned accusative case forms.


194

εἰσέρχομαι, εἰσελεύσομαι, εἰσῆλθον, εἰσελήλυθα, ________, ________

I go in, come in, enter
(εἰς + ἔρχομαι)

12, 20

914

ἐκ, ἐξ

out of, from, since (The English word exit is derived from this Greek word.)

7

Nouns, adjectives, and articles that immediately follow the preposition ἐκ are assigned genitive case forms.


82

ἕκαστος, -η, -ον

each

5

81

ἐκβάλλω, ἐκβαλῶ, ἐξέβαλον, ἐκβέβληκα, ἐκβέβλημαι, ἐξἐβλήθην

I cast out, throw out
(ἐκ + βάλλω)

12

114

ἐκκλησία, -ας, ἡ

assembly, church, congregation

11

10

ἐκκόπτω, ______, ἤκοψα, ______, ______, ______

I cut down (a tree); I exterminate, destroy (something)

22

13

ἐκπλήσσομαι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ἐξεπλάγην

I am amazed
All occurrences of this word in the New Testament and Septuagint have middle/passive forms.

23

33

ἐκπορεύομαι, ἐκπορεύσομαι, ______, ______, ______, ______

I go out, come out; I leave
(ἐκ + πορεύομαι)
Notice that this is a verb of bodily motion. It appears only with middle/passive forms.

23

4

ἐκτίθημι, ______, ______, ἐξετέθην

1. transitive. I expose (something or someone), make (something) public; I abandon (a child), expose (a child) to the elements; I explain (something), expose the significance or meaning (of something)

22

53

ἐλπίς, ἐλπίδος, ἡ

hope

15

2752

ἐν

in, on, at, by, with, among

7

Nouns, adjectives, and articles that immediately follow the preposition ἐν are assigned dative case forms.


67

ἐντολή, -ής, ἡ

commandment, order (that which is commanded)

13

218

ἐξέρχομαι, ἐξελεύσομαι, έξῆλθον, ἐξελήλυθα, ______, ______

I leave, go out, come out, depart
(ἐκ + ἔρχομαι)

12, 20

17

ἐξίστημι, ______, ἐξέστην, ______, ______, ______

I amaze (someone); I confuse (someone)
(ἐκ + ἵστημι)

23

102

ἐξουσία, -ας, ἡ

authority, power
Contrast ἀρχή, -ής, ἡ

13

52

ἐπαγγελία, -ας, ἡ

promise, pledge

11

56

ἐπερωτάω (Contracts to ἐπερωτῶ), ἐπερωτήσω, ἐπηρώτησα, ______, ______, ______

I ask, inquire

18

Ἐπερωτάω is both a compound verb (ἐπί + ἐρωτάω) and a contract verb (stem ending in α).

8

ἐπιλαμβάνομαι, ______, ἐπέλαβον, ______, ______, ______

I take hold (of)
ἐπί + λαμβάνω

21

8

ἐπιλανθάνομαι, ______, ἐπελαθόμην, ______, ______, ______,

I forget
ἐπί + λανθάνω

20

39

ἐπιτίθημι, ἐπιθήσω, ἐπέθηκα, ______, ______, ______

I lay (something) on (something else); I put, place; I add

21

48

ἔρημος, -ον

abandoned, desolate, lonely

6

When used as a noun, ἔρημος should be translated, “desert.”

Ἔρημος is listed in the lexicon as an adjective, but only two forms are shown rather than the usual three. This is done becauseἔρημος only has two sets of case forms. It uses the same endings for both masculine and feminine (ἔρημος). The neuter nominative singular form is ἔρημον.


634

ἔρχομαι, ἐλεύσομαι, ἤλθον (ἤλθα), ἐλήλυθα, ______, ______

I go, come

12, 20, 23

Unlike the English words "come" and "go," ἔρχομαι gives no indication of the speaker or writer's spacial perspective. In English we say "come" when we want to indicate movement in the direction of the speaker, while we use "go" to indicate movement away from the speaker. Ἔρχομαι is used for both of these perspectives. You must look for clues in the context to determine which is the best translation each time you encounter ἔρχομαι.


46

ἐρῶ
(See λέγω.)

I will say
Used as the future of λέγω.

18

63

ἐρωτάω, ἐρωτήσω, ἠρώτησα, ______, ______, ______

I ask, ask for, request

9

158

ἐσθίω, φάγομαι (or ἔδομαι), ἔφαγον, ______, ______, ______

I eat

12

52

ἔσχατος, -η, -ον

last, final (eschatology = theory of last things or end times)

5

98

ἕτερος, -α, -ον

other, another (of a different kind)

5

54

εὐαγγελίζω, ______, εὐηγγέλισα, ______, εὐηγγέλισμαι, εὐηγγελίσθην

I bring good news, announce good news

22, 27

The argument structure of εὐαγγελίζω is different from the English verbs bring and announce because the Greek verb includes within its meaning the notion of "good news" which must be stated separately as an object in English.

76

εὐαγγέλιον, -ου, τό

good news, gospel (evangelistic; εὐ-, good + ἀγγελία, message)

4

176

εὑρίσκω, εὑρήσω, εὗρον, εὕρηκα, ______, εὑρέθην

I find, discover

12

708

ἔχω, ἕξω, ἔσχον, ἔσχηκα, ______, _______

I have

1

The breathing mark is rough on the future tense forms of ἔχω: ἕξω.

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ζ, ζ

117

ζητέω, ζητήσω, ἐζήτησα, ______, ______, ______

I seek, look for, try to find

9

135

ζωή, -ής, ἡ

life, way of living

11

α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ μ ν ξ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ
χ
ψ
ω

Η, η

19870

ἡ (ὁ, ἡ, τό)

the (when translated)

6

It is often necessary to leave the article untranslated since the rules for its use in Greek are different from the rules for the use of the article in English.


389

ἡμέρα, -ας, ἡ

day, lifetime, time period

13

315

ἦν (See εἰμί)

he was, she was, it was

7

Ἦν is the 3rd singular imperfect active indicative of εἰμί, a very important little verb that appears 2462 times in the Greek New Testament alone.

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Θ, θ

91

θάλασσα, -ης, ἡ

sea, lake, ocean

11

120

θάνατος, -ου, ὁ

death (euthanasia = merciful death)

4

62

θέλημα, θελήματος, τό

will, wish (Compare θέλω below.)

16

208

θέλω, ______, ἠθέλησα, ______, ______, ______

I want, wish, intend; I am willing (to)

12, 22

43

θεραπεύω, θεραπεύσω, ἐθεράπευσα, ______, τεθεράπευμαι, ἐθεραπεύθην

I heal

21

1317

θεός, -οῦ, ὁ

God, god (theology = theory about God)

4

58

θεωρέω (Contracts to θεωρῶ), θεωρήσω, ἐθεώρησα, ______, ______, ______

I see, observe, watch

18

62

θρόνος, -ου, ὁ

throne

6

46

θυρίον, -ου, τό

animal, beast

19

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ι, ι

114

ἴδιος, -α, -ον

one’s own, his own, her own

6

71

ἱερόν, -οῦ, τό

temple, sanctuary

4

60

ἱμάτιον, -ου, τό

garment, clothing

6

195

Ίουδαῖος, -α, -ον

Judean, Jewish (Judea = the land of the Jewish people)

5

The adjective Ίουδαῖος is sometimes used like a noun. In such cases it must be translated “Jew” or “Judean.” The feminine form (Ἰουδαῖα) is often used as a noun to refer to the region of Judea.

155

ἵστημι, στήσω, ἔστην (ἔστησα), ἕστηκα, ______, ἑστήθην

I place, put, set; I stand, stop, uphold

14, 18

The aorist forms of ἴστημι are inconsistent. Sometimes this verb has first aorist forms (ἔστησα) and sometimes second aorist (ἔστην).


α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Κ, κ

7

καθέζομαι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I sit, sit down
Notice that this is a verb of bodily motion. It appears only with middle/passive forms.

23

91

κάθημαι, καθήσομαι, ______, ______, ______, ______

I sit, sit down; I remain, stay
Notice that this is a verb of bodily motion. It appears only with middle/passive forms. Notice also that where you might expect to see a thematic vowel (ο/ε), there is an η. This η belongs to the stem of this verb, and the present tense endings are added without the thematic vowel.

23

85

καιρός, -ου, ὁ

time, opportunity, occasion

6

50

κακός, -ή, -όν

bad (cacophony = a lot of noise/bad sounds)

5, 17

148

καλέω (Contracts to καλῶ), καλέσω, ἐκάλεσα, κέκληκα, κέκλημαι, ἐκλήθην

I call, invite, address as, name

9, 18

The stem-final ε in καλέω does not lengthen to η for the future and aorist forms: καλέσω, not καλήσω; ἐκάλεσα, not ἐκάλησα.


46

καθίζω, καθίσω, ἐκάθισα, ________, ________, ________

I cause to sit down; I appoint; (especially middle voice) I stay, live

19

100

καλός, -ή, -όν

good, beautiful (caligraphy = beautiful writing)

5

156

καρδία, -ας, ἡ

heart, inner self, mind

11

67

καρπός, -οῦ, ὁ

fruit, crop, result

19

81

καταβαίνω, καταβήσομαι, κατέβην, καταβέβηκα, ______, ______

I come down
(κατά + βαίνω)

12, 14

15

καταλαμβάνω, ________, κατέλαβον, κατείληφα, κατείλημμαι, κατελήμφθην

I take; I overtake, catch up with (someone); I reach (a destination or a conclusion)

21

24

κεῖμαι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I lie down; I am present (in a particular place)
Notice that this is a verb of bodily motion. It appears only with middle/passive forms. Notice also that κεῖμαι is written and pronounced without a thematic vowel.

23

75

κεφαλή, -ής, ἡ

head, origin, starting point

11

61

κηρὐσσω, κηρύξω, ἐκήρυξα, ______, ______, ἐκηρύχθην

I proclaim, announce, preach

9

While the future active indicative of κηρὐσσω (κηρύξω) does not appear in the New Testament, the future passive indicative does. See Matthew 24:14 and Luke 12:3.


186

κόσμος, -ου, ὁ

world, universe, earth, humankind (Cosmos = universe)

5

47

κρατέω, κρατήσω, ἐκράτησα, κεκράτηκα, κεκράτημαι, ________

I grasp, attain, take; hold, arrest, retain

19

114

κρίνω, κρινῶ, ἔκρινα, κέκρικα, κέκριμαι, ἐκρίθην

I judge, prefer, consider, decide

9, 18

19

κρύπτω, ______, ἔκρυψα, ______, κέκρυμμαι,* ἐκρύβην

I hide (someone or something), conceal (something)

21

The perfect tense stem of κρύπτω is κεκρύπτ-. It is spelled κεκρύμ- in the list above because of normal phonemic processes. The stem-final τ is eliminated whenever an ending that begins with μ is added directly to the stem. That leaves κεκρύπ-, with π in the final position. When the ending -μαι is added, the π changes to μ. Π usually changes to μ when it immediately precedes another μ.

47

κρίσις, κρίσεως, ἡ

judgment, condemnation, punishment

19

717

κύριος, -ου, ὁ

master, lord, Lord

4


α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Λ, λ

296

λαλέω, λαλήσω, ἐλάλησα, λελάληκα, λελάλημαι, ἐλαλήθην

I speak, say, proclaim

9

259

λαμβάνω, λήψομαι, ἔλαβον, εἴληφα, ______, ______

I take, receive; I choose

12,
21

This verb (λαμβάνω) is a composite of several originally separate verbs. Its future and aorist forms are base on stems entirely unrelated to the present tense stem. Learn each stem with care.


6

λανθάνω, ______, ἐλάθον, ______, _______, ____

I go unnoticed, escape notice, am hidden; I ignore (something); I act without noticing (something)

na

142

λαός, -οῦ, ὁ

people, crowd, populace

5

2354

λἐγω, ἐρῶ, εἶπον, εἴρηκα, εἴρημαι, ἐρρέθην

I speak, talk, say, tell, ask, answer

12,
17,
20

This verb (λέγω) is a composite of several originally separate verbs. Each of its tenses is base on a stem entirely unrelated to the present tense stem. Learn each stem with care.

59

λίθος, -ου, ὁ

stone, rock (monolith = a single huge stone)

6

330

λόγος, -ου, ὁ

word, matter, event, thing

4

55

λοιπός, -ή, -όν

remaining

6

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Μ, μ

261

μαθητής, -ου, ὁ

student, disciple

11

50

μακάριος, -α, -ον

blessed, happy, fortunate

6

76

μαρτυρέω, μαρτυρησω, ἐμαρτύρησα, μεμαρτύρηκα, μεμαρτύρημαι, ἐμαρτυρήθην

I testify, bear witness, confirm; Passive = I am approved, I receive approval

9, 19

109

μέλλω, μελλήσω, ______, ______, ______, ______

I intend to, I am about to

14

Like the verb είμί, μέλλω appears only in the present, imperfect, and future tenses, so only the present and future stems appear in its lexical list. The imperfect active indicative first singular form is ἔμελλον.


58

μέσος, -η, -ον

middle, middle of (mesopotamia = the land in the middle between the ποταμοί [rivers])

6

467

μετά

+ genitive: with
+ accusative: after, behind

17

12

μεταβαίνω, μεταβήσομαι, μετέβην, μεταβέβηκεν, ______, ______

I turn, enter; I leave, depart, move on, go on
(μετά + βαίνω)

14

22

μετανοία, μετανοίας

repentance, change of life in response to a changed attitude

μετανοία differs somewhat from the English word "repentance" in that the English word strongly implies a feeling of guilt or sorrow, while the focus of μετανοία is on the change in actions that comes from a change in thinking or commitment.

27

83

μήτηρ, μητρός, ἡ

mother (maternal)

16

46

μικρός, -ά, -όν

small, humble (ὁ μικρός = child, little while)

19

114

μόνος, -η, -ον

only, alone, deserted, isolated (monogamy = marriage to only one person)

5

80

Μωϋσῆς, Μωϋσέως, ὁ

Moses

16

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ν, ν

128

νεκρός, -ά, -όν

dead, useless (necrophilia = a psychological disorder involving obsession with dead bodies)

5

The adjective νεκρός is sometimes used as a noun. In such cases it should be translated “dead person,” “dead body,” or “corpse.”


194

νόμος, -ου, ὁ

law, principle
(Deuteronomy = the second law)

4

61

νύξ, νυκτός, ἡ

night [νύξ is conjugated like σάρξ, but with κτ for κ.]

15




α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ξ, ξ

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ο, ο

19,870

ὀ, ἠ, τό

the (when translated)

7

It is often necessary to leave the article untranslated since the rules for its use in Greek are different from the rules for the use of the article in English.

93

οἱκία, -ας, ἡ

house, household

13

114

οἶκος, -ου, ὁ

house, home, family, lineage

6

109

ὅλος, -η, -ον

whole, entire, complete, altogether

5

231

ὄνομα, ὀνόματος, τό

name, title

15

454

ὁράω, ὄψομαι, εἶδον, ἑώρακεν, ______, ὤφθην

I see

12

Each of the tenses of ὁράω is built on a stem unrelated to its other tense stems. Learn each one with care.


63

ὄρος, ὄρους, τό

mountain, hill

16

1407

ὅς, ἥ, ὅ

who, whom, which, that

13

103

ὅτε

when, while

23

1647

οὐ, οὐκ, οὐχ

no, not

17

46

οὐαί

woe, sorrow, disaster

19

Οὐαί was used as an exclamation of lament. We no longer have a good English equivalent. Most of the expressions used for this effect in English today involve profanity, and would not be appropriate translations of οὐαί, since the Greek word did not imply anything profane.


227

οὐδείς, οὐδεμία, οὐδέν

no one, nothing
οὐ + δέ + εἷς/μία/ἕν (1)

22, 27

47

οὐκέτι

no longer, no more (οὐκ + ἔτι)

19

499

ον

therefore, then

9

273

οὐρανός, -οῦ, ὁ

sky, heaven

5

The word οὐρανός is sometimes used figuratively to refer to God.

208

οὕτως

so, thus, in this way

7

100

ὀφθαλμός, -οῦ, ὁ

eye, sight (ophthalmologist = eye doctor)

5

175

ὄχλος, -ου, ὁ

crowd, multitude

5

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Π, π

52

παιδίον, -ου, τό

child

4

194

παρά

(+ gen.) from, of, by; (+ dat.) from, with; (+ acc.) by, alongside, beside, at

6, 7, 10

50

παραβολή, -ής, ἡ

parable, comparison, proverb, poem

11

37

παραγίνομαι, ______, παρεγένομαι, ______, ______, ______

I come, arrive, am present; I appear, make a public appearance; I stand by (someone), come to the aid (of someone)

22

119

παραδίδωμι, παραδώσω, παρέδωκα, παραδέδωκα, ________, παρεδώθην

I hand over, deliver

21

109

παρακαλέω, παρακαλέσω, παρεκάλεσα, ______, παρακέκημαι, παρεκληθην

I urge, beg, comfort
(παρά + καλέω)

10

While the future active indicative of παρακαλέω (παρακαλέσω) does not appear in the New Testament, the future passive indicative does. See Matthew 5:4.

49

παραλαμβάνω, παραλήμψομαι, παρέλαβον, ______, ______, ______

I take, take along; I bring along with me

17

1243

πᾶς, πᾶσα, πᾶν

all, whole

23, 27

413

πατήρ, πατρός, ὁ

father (paternal)

15

158

Παῦλος, -ου, ὁ

Paul

5

15

παύω, παύσομαι, ἐπαυσάμην, ________, πέπαυμαι, ________

I stop, cease

20, 21

52

πείθω, πείσω, ἔπεισα, ______, ______, ______

I persuade, exhort, encourage; I believe, trust

18

79

πέμπω, πέμψω, ἔπεμψα, ______, ______, ἐπέμφθην

I send, commission, appoint

9, 18, 20

333

περί

about, around, concerning

7, 10

23

περιβάλλω, περιβαλῶ, περιέβαλον, ________, ________, ________

I dress (someone or something), I put (clothes) on (someone); (mid.) I wear, get dressed

20, 21

95

περιπατέω, περιπατήσω, περιεπάτησα, ______, ______, ______

I walk (around), go (around), live, conduct myself
(περί + πατέω)

10

156

Πέτρος, -ου, ὁ

Peter

5

55

Πιλᾶτος, -ου, ὁ

Pilate

6

90

πίπτω, πεσοῦμαι, ἔπεσον, πέπτωκα, ______, ______

I fall, collapse, perish

12

241

πιστεύω, πιστεύσω, ἐπίστευσα, πεπίστευκα, πεπίστευμαι, ἐπιστεύθην

I trust, entrust; have faith (in), believe (in); I am faithful

9

243

πίστις, πίστεως, ἡ

trust, faith, faithfulness (Compare πιστεύω above.)

16

67

πιστός, -ή, -όν

faithful, trustworthy

5

86

πληρόω (Contracts to πληρῶ), πληρώσω, ἐπλήρωσα, πεπλήρωκα, πεπλήρωμαι, ἐπληρώθην

I fill, complete, finish, fulfill

9, 18

68

πλοῖον, -ου, τό

boat, ship

6

379

πνεῦμα, πνεύματος, τό

spirit, wind

15

568

ποιέω, ποιήσω, ἐποίησα, πεποίηκα, ______, ______

I do; I make

12, 20

ποιέω is used to indicate action, whether or not that action produces a result. In English we use "make" specifically to describle actions that produce a result (make a mistake, make a sandcastle).

162

πόλις, πόλεως, ἡ

city, town (A metropolis is a principal city [from μητρός πόλις].)

16

78

πονηρός, -ά, -άν

evil, bad, wicked

5

150

πορεύομαι, πορεύσομαι, ________, ________, ________, ἐπορεύθην

I go, travel, proceed

20, 23

93

πούς, ποδός, ὁ

foot (tripod = a camera stand with three feet. [The dative plural of πούς is πόσιν. Otherwise πούς is conjugated like παῖς.]

15

66

πρεσβύτερος, -α, -ον

older
The adjective πρεσβύτερος is frequently used as a noun. In such cases it should be translated “elder,” “presbyter,” or “older person.”

5

47

πρό

before, in front of, at (prologue = a short section before a book, in the front of the book)

19

9

προέρχομαι, προελεύσομαι, προήλθον, ______, ______, ______

I go before (someone); I lead (someone)

22

86

προσέρχομαι, προσελεύσομαι, προσῆλθον, προσελήλυθα, ______, ______

I go to, approach
(πρός + ἔρχομαι)

12

29

προσκαλέομαι, ______, προσεκαλέσαμαι, ______, προσκέκλημαι, ______

I summon (someone), call (someone) to myself
(πρός + καλέω)

22

12

προσλαμβάνω, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______,

I receive, accept; I increase
(πρός + λαμβάνω)

21

47

προσφέρω, προσοίσω, προσήνεγκον (or προσήνεγκα), προσενήνοχα, προσενήνεγμαι, προσηνέχθην (or προσηνείχθην)

I bring to, offer, present
(πρός + acc. = to, toward; φέρω = I bring, carry)
(πρός + φέρω)

19

76

πρόσωπον, -ου, τό

face, appearance

7

2

προφέρω, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

bring forth, produce
(πρό + φέρω)

17

144

προφήτης, -ου, ὁ

prophet

11

155

πρῶτος, -η, -ον

first, earlier, foremost (prototype = first model)

5

12

πυνθάνομαι, ______, ἐπυθόμην, ______, ______, ______

I inquire, ask
Can you see why this verb always appears with middle voice forms? How is its meaning a good fit for the middle voice?

23

71

πῦρ, πυρός, τό

fire (A funeral pyre is a fire on which a body is burned.)

15


α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Ρ, ρ

68

ῥῆμα, ῥήματος, τό

word, saying (Contrast λόγος above.)

15

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Σ, σ (ς)

147

σάρξ, σαρκός, ἡ

flesh, body (A sarcophagus is a box in which a body is buried.)

15

77

σημεῖον, -ου, τό

sign, symbolic event

7

75

Σίμων, Σίμωνος, ὁ

Simon

15

29

σκανδαλίζω, ______, ______, ______, ______, ἐσκανδαλίσθην

I anger (someone); I offend (someone); I cause (someone) to stumble or to sin
The English word scandal is derived from this Greek word.

23

51

σοφία, -ας, ἡ

wisdom, insight, intelligence, skill

13

52

σπείρω,
______, ἔσπειρα, ______, ______, ______

I sow, spead (seeds)

20

46

σταυρόω, σταυρώσω, ἐσταύρωσα, ______, ἐσταύρωμαι, ἐσταυρώθην

I crucify

19

78

στόμα, στόματος, τό

mouth, speech (Στόμα does not mean stomach.)

16

2907

σύ, σοῦ

You, your, yours

The forms of this word are introduced in this lesson. Study them well.

27

7

συνανἀκειμαι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I recline with (someone); I share a meal with (someone)
(σύν + ἀνά + κεῖμαι)
Notice that this is a verb of bodily motion. It appears only with middle/passive forms.

23

6

συμβάλλω, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I put together; I agree

21

59

συνάγω, συνάξω, συνήγαγον, ______, ______, συνήχθην

I gather, get together

12

56

συναγωγή, -ής, ἡ

gathering, synagogue

13

3

συντίθημι, ______, ______, ______, ______, ______

I put (some things or some people) together; I agree

21

142

σῶμα, σώματος, τό

body, reality (psychosomatic = an illness where the mind affects the body)

15

106

σώζω, σώσω, ἔσωσα, σέσωκα, σέσωμαι, ἐσώθην

I heal, rescue, save

9

24

σωτήρ, σωτῆρος

healer, savior, rescuer

27

46

σωτηρία, -ας, ἡ

salvation, deliverance, preservation, rescue (soteriology = theory of salvation)

19

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Τ, τ

99

τέκνον, -ου, τό

child

4

28

τελέω (Contracts to τελῶ), ______, ἐτέλεσα, τετέλεκα, τετέλεσμαι, ἐτελέσθην

I finish, complete (something); I fulfill

23

70

τηρέω (Contracts to τηρῶ), τηρήσω, ἐτήρησα, τετήρηκα, τετήτημαι, ἐτηρήθην

I keep, guard

23, 27

100

τίθημι, θήσω, ἔθηκα, τέθεικα, τέθειμαι, ἐτέθην

I put, place, lay down; I appoint, make (in the sense of designating someone as something), designate

8, 9, 18, 21

19870

τό (ὁ, ἡ, τό)

the (when translated)

6

It is often necessary to leave the article untranslated since the rules for its use in Greek are different from the rules for the use of the article in English.

94

τόπος, -ου, ὁ

place (topography = designing of maps)

7

159

τότε

then

17, 23

56

τρίτος, -η, -ον

third (tricycle = a three wheeled vehicle)

6

50

τυφλός, -ή, -όν

blind
When τυφλός is used as a noun it should be translated “blind person.”

5

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Υ, υ

76

ὕδωρ, ὕδατος

water

Notice that ὕδωρ, ὕδατος is a neuter 3rd declension noun, so its nominative and accusative forms are identical. Its singular forms are: ὕδωρ, ὕδατος, ὕδατι, ὕδωρ. The plural forms are: ὕδατα, ὑδάτων, ὕδασιν, , and ὕδατα.

27

377

υἱός, -οῦ, ὁ

son

5

The plural form of υἱός is often used to refer to groups of both sons and daughters. In such instances it should be translated as "children."

α
β
γ
δ
ε
ζ
η
θ
ι
κ
λ
μ
ν
ξ
ο
π
ρ
σ
τ
υ
φ
χ
ψ
ω

Φ, φ

31

φαίνω, φανῶ/φανήσω, ἐφᾶνα, ______, _______, ἐφάνην

intransitive. I shine, become visible, appear (as), appear (to be)

22

66

φέρω, οἴσω, ἤνεγκα (ἤνεγκον), ἐνήνοχα, ἐνήνεγμαι, ἠνέχθην

bring, carry

17

95

φοβέω, φοβηθησομαι, ______, ἐφοβήθην

Active Voice (φοβέω » φοβῶ)
I cause (someone) to be afraid; I frighten (someone)
Active voice form not found in the N.T., but see LXX of 2 Chronicles 32:18 and Wisdom 17:9.

Middle Voice (φοβέομαι » φοβοῦμαι)
1. transitive. I fear (someone or something); I am afraid (of someone or something); intransitive. I am afraid
2. transitive. I respect (someone), show reverence for (someone)
This verb is always middle/passive in the New Testament.

22

47

φόβος, -ου, ὁ

fear, reverence, respect, cause of fear (the thing feared) (claustrophobia fear of enclosed places)

19

47

φυλακή, -ής, ἡ

watch (period of the night), guard, prison

19

139

φωνή, -ής, ἡ

sound, voice

13

73

φῶς, φωτός, τό

light, fire (fotography = producing pictures by recording light)

15

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Χ, χ

74

χαίρω, χαρήσομαι, ἐχαίρησα, [ ], [ ], ἐχάρην

I rejoice, am glad [The passive voice of this verb is often translated "be glad."]

19

59

χαρά, -άς, ἡ

joy, gladness; reason for joy

13

155

χάρις, χάριτος, ἡ

grace, thanks χάρις is declined like παῖς, but its accusative singular form is χάριν, although occasionally χάριτα.

15

177

χείρ, χειρός, ἡ

hand (The prefix chir- in words like chirography and chiropractor means “hand.”) χείρ is declined like σωτήρ, except that its dative plural form is χερσί(ν).

15

529

Χριστός, -οῦ, ὁ

Christ, Anointed One, Messiah

5

54

χρόνος, -ου, ὁ

time, period of time, occasion (chronology = a list or account organized by time)

7

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Ψ, ψ

103

ψυχή, -ής, ἡ

life, mind, soul

11




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Ω, ω

504

ὡς, ὥστε

as, just as, like

9

106

ὥρα, -ας, ἡ

hour, time, occasion

11

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